Name: Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Jafar bin Muhammad as-Sadiq (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ)
Titles: Saadiq, Faadil and Taahir
Predecessor: Hazrat Sayyiduna Imam Baaqir رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Successor: Hazrat Bayazid al-Bistami رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
Date of Birth: Monday, the 7th of Rabi-ul-Awwal, 83 Hijri in Madinah Munawwarah
Date of Wisaal: Friday, the 15th of Rajab, 148 Hijri at Madinah Munawwarah
Resting at: Jannat al-Baqi in Madinah Munawwarah
HIS LINEAGE:The son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ), son of al-Imam Zain al-`Abidin(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ), son of al-Husayn(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ), son of `Ali bin Abi Talib(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ). His mother was the daughter of Hazrat al-Qassim(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) , whose great grandfather was Hazrat Abu Bakr as-Siddiq (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ).
He spent his life in worship and acts of piety for the sake of Allah. He rejected all positions of fame in favor of `uzla or isolation from the lower world. One of his contemporaries, `Umar ibn Abi-l-Muqdam(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ), said, "When I look at Ja`far bin Muhammad(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) I see the lineage and the secret of the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), united in him."
He received from the Prophet two lines of inheritance: the secret of the Prophet(صلى الله عليه وسلم), through 'Ali(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) and the secret of the Prophet(صلى الله عليه وسلم), through Abu Bakr(رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) . In him the two lineages met and for that reason he was called "The Inheritor of the Prophetic Station (Maqam an-Nubuwwa) and the Inheritor of the Truthful Station (Maqam as-Siddiqiyya)." In him was reflected the light of the knowledge of Truth and Reality. That light shone forth and that knowledge was spread widely through him during his lifetime.
HIS FEATURES:He was very handsome and had a radiant appearance. He had the perfect height, and was tan in complexion. He encompassed the exemplary qualities his forefathers. Haafiz Abu Nuaim Isfahani narrates in Khalifatul Abraar on the authority of Umar bin Midqaam, “When I used to look at Hadrat Imam Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu then I used to immediately feel that he was from amongst the descendants of the Prophets”
EXCELLENCE:He was without doubt the true successor to the Muslim empire and one of the greatest Imams of his era. Imam Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu was a great Aabid and Sufi. Many secrets of Tasawwuf were explained by him. It is in Tabqaatul Abraar, that he received the authority of Hadith from his blessed father, from Imam Zuhri and Naaf’i and ibn Munkadir etc. and Sufyaan Sawri, Ibn Ainiyyah, Shu’ba, Yahya Al Qataan, Imam Maalik and his son Imam Moosa Kaazim (ridwaanullahi ta aala alaihim ajmaeen) attained this authority of Hadith from him. Allama Ibn Hajar Makki Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu writes in Sawaa’iq Muhariqa . “The exalted Imams such as Yahya Bin Saeed, Ibn Jareeh, Imam Maalik ibn Anas, Imam Sufyaan Sawri, Sufyan bin Ainiyyah, Imam Abu Hanifa and Abu Ayoob Sajistani (ridwaanullahi ta aala alaihim ajmaeen) took Hadith from him.” [Masaalik as-Saalikeen]
HIS CHARACTER:He was a very exalted and pious personality. His inner and outer appearance exuded brightness and radiance. He addressed the poor and the downtrodden with great love. Once he called all his servants and said, “Let us give our hands in the hands of one another and promise that whichever one of us first receives salvation on the day of Qiyaamah, he will intercede for the rest of us.” On hearing this, they said, “O Ibn Rasool SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam! For what reason do you need our intercession, when your beloved forefather Rasoolullah SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam will intercede for the entire creation?”.
HIS IBAADAT:He was well known for his ibaadat, and his striving in the Court of Allah. Hadrat Imam Malik Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu says, “I spent a very long time serving him, and I always found him in one of three Ibaadats. Either he was in namaaz, or engrossed in recitation of the Quran, or he would be fasting.” He never narrated any Hadith Shareef without wudhu. [Tazkirat al-Awliyah]
HIS DUA:He was without doubt a faithful servant of Allah, and he always attained everything that he asked for from the Court of Allah. Abul Qasim Tabri narrates from Wahab, that he heard Laith bin Sa’ad Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu saying, “I was on my way to Hajj by foot in 113 Hijri and I reached Makkah Muazammah. I reached Jabl Abu Qais close to the time of Asr Salaah. There, I saw a pious man sitting (in seclusion), making dua. He was saying ‘Ya Rabbi Ya Rabbi’ so many times, that breathing became difficult. Then in the same way, he said ‘Ya Hayy Ya Hayy’ then ‘Ya Rab’bahu Ya Rab’bahu, then in the same say, he said ‘Ya Allah Ya Allah’ in one breath continuously. He then said ‘Ya Rahmaanu Ya Rahmaanu, Ya Raheemu Ya Raheemu’ and then he went on to say ‘Ya Arhamar Raahimeen’. He then said, “O Allah I desire to eat grapes. Please bless me with some, and my clothes have become old and tattered Please give me new ones.”
Hadrat Laith says, “By Allah, he was still competing his dua, when I saw a basket of grapes kept before him, whereas it was not event the grape season and I did not see an grapes near him before his dua. I also saw that there were two pieces of cloth kept near the grapes. I have never seen such beautiful material before. He then sat down to eat the grapes. I went up to him and said, Huzoor! May I also have a part in this?, and he asked how this was so, so I said, I was saying Aameen as you made the dua. He said, ‘Well then, step forward and join me.’ I also began to partake in the grapes. They were so tasty, that never have I eaten such delicious grapes. I ate until I was satisfied, but the basket still remained as it was before, full of grapes. He then offered on piece of cloth to me, and I said that I had no need for it, so he tied one around his waist, and he draped the other over his shoulder. He then descended from the mountain and I followed him. As he drew close to Saffa and Marwa, a beggar called out to him and said, ‘O Descendant of the Prophet SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam! Give these clothes to me and Allah will dress you in the clothes of Jannat.” He immediately gave the two pieces of cloth to the beggar. (On seeing this), I enquired about the identity of this pious man from the beggar, who informed me that he was Hadrat Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. I then looked for him so that I may listen to some words of wisdom from him and attain his blessings, but he had disappeared from my sight.” [Tazkirat al-Awliyah, Page 12]
Once, some people saw that Hadrat Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu was wearing a very expensive robe. One of them walked up to him and said, “Huzoor! It is not good for the Ahle Bait to wear such expensive clothing.” He caught hold of the man’s hand and thrust it into his sleeves. The man was amazed when he found that a Hadrat was wearing clothes make from sacks under his robe. Hadrat Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu then said, “The one inside is for my Creator and the one on top is for the creation.”
A man once lost his purse which contained one thousand dinaars. Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu was walking close to him, so he held the hand of the Imam and accused him of stealing his money. Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu asked how much he had in his money bag, and the man said that he had one thousand dinaars. Hadrat took him home and gave him one thousand dinaars from his wealth. The next day, the man found his money bag, and came rushing to Hadrat Imam Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu to return the money he had taken from him. Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said, “We do not take back what we have already given.” The man then asked some people who this person was, and he was told that it was Hadrat Imam Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. When he heard this, he became very sad and regretted his behavior. [Tazkirat al-Awliyah]
DEBATE WITH AN ATHEIST:Hadrat Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu spent a lot of his time spreading the word of Allah and His Rasool SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam. He always spoke against those who did not believe in Allah. An atheist from Egypt came to Hadrat Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu whilst he was in Makkah. Hadrat Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu asked his name and he said that his name was Abdul Malik and he was also known as Abdullah. On hearing this Hadrat said, “Malik, whose servant you are, is he from the Kingdom of the Skies or the Kingdom of the earth, the Lord that is the Lord of your son, is he the Lord of the skies or the Lord of the Earths?” The atheist could not answer this question. Hadrat then said, “Did you ever journey under the earth? Do you know what is beyond it?” He replied in the negative and said, “I think there is nothing beyond it.” Hadrat then said to him, “Thinking is not sufficient! However, have you ever flown into the skies and journeyed beyond the skies?” Again he replied in the negative. Hadrat said, “Did you ever travel the entire East and West and did you realise anything about the future from this?” Again he answered in the negative. Hadrat said, “I am amazed, that you are not aware of the earth and what is beneath it, and the sky and what is beyond it, and in this state of ignorance, you still have the arrogance to reject the existence of Allah. O Ignorant man! There is no argument for one who is naive about that which is a reality. The sun, the moon, the night and day, are all in a specific pattern. Verily they are within some divine control. If they were free, then they would move as they willed and would sometimes go to an appointed spot and not return. Why is it that the night does not take the place of day and the day does not take the place of night? Do you not ponder upon the reality of the skies and the earth? Why does the sky not come to the earth and why is it that the earth is not flattened by the sky? There is definitely ONE, who has all this in His Divine Control. It is He (Allah) who is All Powerful. It is He, who is our and their Lord.” When the atheist heard this, he immediately accepted Islam and had faith in the existence of Allah.
HIS KNOWLEDGE:Hazrat Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) was famed for his depth and breadth of knowldege. In addition to his knowledge of Islamic sciences, Hazrat Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ) was well educated in natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy , astronomy , anatomy , chemistry (alchemy), and other subjects. The foremost Islamic alchemist Jabir bin Hayyan (known in Europe as Geber) was his most prominent student. Imam Jafar was known for his liberal views on learning, and was keen to debate with scholars of different faiths and of different beliefs. Imam Abu Hanifa is quoted by many souces as having said "My knowledge extends to only two years. The two I spent with Imam Jafar Sadiq". Imam Jafar also attained a surpassing knowledge in astronomy and in the science of medicine. It is said that he wrote more than five hundred books on health care which were compiled and annotated by another great scholar and scientist of Islam, Jabir bin Hayyan.
Click here to download a pdf which details about the discoveries and philosophies of Hazrat Imam Ja`far as-Sadiq (رحمتہ اللہ علیہ)
HAZRAT BAYAZID AL-BISTAMI رحمتہ اللہ علیہ:Hadrat Ba Yazeed Bustaami Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu used to distribute water in the Darbaar of Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. Hadrat placed his saintly sight on Hadrat Bayazeed Bustaami Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu once, and he became one of the greatest mystics of his time. He then served in the Court of Hadrat Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu and became one of the greatest Awliyah.
IMAM ABU HANIFA رحمتہ اللہ علیہ:Hadrat Imam Azam Abu Hanifa Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu attained great blessings from Hadrat Imam Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. It is narrated that once he asked Imam Abu Hanifa Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu concerning who is an intelligent person. Hadrat Imam Abu Hanifa Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said, “He who can differentiate between good and evil is an intelligent man.” Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said, “Even animals have the ability to differentiate. It can differentiate between those who love them, beat them or instill fear in them?” Imam Abu Hanifa Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu then said, “O Hadrat! Would you please explain who is truly intelligent?” Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said, “An intelligent person, is one who can differentiate between two good things and two evils, so that he may choose the better of two good things and that he may be able to repel the worse of two evils.”
KARAAMATS:Hadrat Imam Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu is an example for Muslims in every way. His greatest Karaamat was his firmness on the Shariat. His every step was in accordance with the Sunnat of the Prophet SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam. A few of his Karaamats are being quoted below.
A MANSION IN JANNAH:Once, a man came to Hadrat Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu before journeying for Hajj. He gave Hadrat 10,000 dirhams, and asked him to purchase a mansion for him before he returned. Instead of purchasing a mansion, Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu distributed the entire 10,000 dirhams in the way of Allah. After the man returned from Hajj, he went to meet Hadrat Imam Jaafar Saadiq Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. Hadrat Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu told him that he had purchased his mansion and then handed the title deed over to him. The title deed read as follows : “One wall of the house is adjoined to the house of the Prophet SallAllahu Alaihi wa Sallam, the other wall is adjoined to the house of Hadrat Ali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu, the third wall is adjoined to the house of Imam Hassan Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu and the fourth wall is adjoined to the house of Imam Hussain Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu.” The man took this title deed, and asked his family members to place it in his grave when he passed away. After his demise, his family members found the title deed on the top of his grave and on the rear of the title deed the following words were written, “Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu was honest and loyal in what he said.” [Masaalik as-Saalikeen, Vol.1, Page 220]
AMAZING INCIDENT:Once, he was on his way to Hajj, when he stopped to rest under a date tree which was completely dried out. At the time of Chasht, he asked the tree to present him with some dates. Immediately, the tree became green and lush and full of dates. Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu then ate from it. A villager was passing by and saw this. He saw this great karaamat and said that it was magic. Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said, “This is not magic. Almighty Allah has blessed me with such a quality, that he accepts all my duas. If I make dua, even you can be transformed into a dog.” Hadrat had not yet completed what he was saying, when the villager began to resemble a dog. He quickly repented and asked Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu to forgive him. Hadrat made dua for him, and he was transformed to his normal self. [Masaalik as-Saalikeen, Vol.1, Page 223]
KHALIFA MANSOOR:Khalifa Mansoor once sent one of his ministers to summon Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu to his Court. He informed his servants that when Imam Jaafar arrived, they should wait for him (Mansoor) to remove his crown. The moment he did this, they should martyr Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. When the minister heard this, he was not pleased and thus tried to explain to Mansoor, how wrong it was to kill a pious person, who is also a Sayyid. The Khalifa did not take heed and had Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu summoned. When Hadrat Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu arrived, the servants waited for their cue, so that they may martyr Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. Instead, Mansoor woke up from his throne and rushed towards the Imam. He brought him towards his throne and allowed him to sit on it with great respect, whilst he sat on the ground in front of the great Imam. The servants and ministers were surprised to see this sudden change in plan. Mansoor then asked the Imam if he had any requests. Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said,"In future you should not summon me to your court, as I wish to remain engrossed in Ibaadat."
When he heard these words, his body began to tremble and he allowed the Imam to leave with respect. When the Imam left, the minister asked about the sudden change in plan and Mansoor said, "When Imam Jaafar Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu entered my court, I saw a huge python with him. The python had its one lip over my throne and one under my throne, and it spoke to me and said that if I tried to ever harm the Imam, then he would consume me with my throne, and that is why I behaved in the manner which I did."
HIS CHILDREN:He was blessed with six sons and one daughter. Their names are :
1. Hadrat Ismaeel رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
2. Hadrat Muhammad رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
3. Hadrat Ali رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
4. Hadrat Abdullah رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
5. Hadrat Ishaaq رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
6. Hadrat Moosa Kaazim رحمتہ اللہ علیہ
7. Bibi Umm-e-Fardah (Ridwaanullahi Ta’ala Alaihim Ajma’een)
HIS KHULAFA:If one studies the books of history, then one will learn about his Khulafa, and how exalted each one of them was and how they had attained his blessings. Some of them are: 1. Hadrat Imam Moosa Kaazim Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu 2. Hadrat Imam Azam Abu Hanifa Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu 3. Hadrat Sultaan Bayazeed Bustaami Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu.
HIS WORDS OF WISDOM:
- He would often make the following dua : "O Allah bless me with respect which is in your obedience and do not disgrace me due to my shortcomings. O Allah let me assist him through your grace and Mercy, whose sustenance you have decreased, for you have blessed me in abundance."
- There is not provision greater than piety. There is nothing better than silence, and there is no enemy more dangerous than ones ignorance and there is no disease worse than lies.
- He who has attained the closeness to Allah divorces himself from everything in the world.
- There is no Ibaadat without repentance, since Allah has caused repentance to be above Ibaadat.
- He who sits in the companionship of all types of people will not be safe.
- One who walks on the wrong path will always arouse suspicion.
- Whoever attacks a matter without knowledge cuts off his own nose.
- Intellect is the guide of the believer.
- The perfection of intellect is in three (things): Humbleness for Allah, Good certainty, and silence except for good.
- Ignorance is in three (things): Arrogance, the intensity of dispute, and the ignorance about Allah.
- Certainly, knowledge is a lock and its key is the question.
- When the believer becomes angry, his anger should not take him out of the truth; and when he becomes satisfied, his satisfaction should not bring him into falsehood.
- Some manners of the ignorant are: the answer before he hears, the opposition before he understands, and the judgment with what he does not know.
- One who cannot keep his tongue in control will always be disgraced.
- Stay away from five kinds of people: 1. A liar, as he will also betray you, 2. A witless person, as he will try to benefit you, but will always cause you harm, 3. A miser, for he will cause you intense loss in order to gain even the slightest benefit, 4. A coward who will leave you in distress during a difficult situation, 5. A man who is involved in illicit dealings, for he will sell you for one morsel and will still be hopeful of even less than that.
- Dishonest and untruthful people never find favor while jealous people never find content.Rude and vulgar people never find acceptance and brotherhood in leadership or amongst citizens.
- Whosoever holds affection towards the creator then he is horribly frightened of the creation.
- For the sake of the creator save yourself so that you may become a true worshipper (‘Aabid) and that which fate had decreed, has occurred then accepts that as well.
- Do not keep the company of an open sinful person since you would be overcome by sin and disobedience. Consult and seek advise from only those who are constantly obeying Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.
- To seek forgiveness is simple but to leave sin is difficult.
- The concealment of sins is the direct consequences of mans destruction.
- Not to show greed to somebody else’s wealth is also a form of charity.
- The eye of the heart opens with ibadat (prayers) and its access is infinite (La Makan – up in the ‘Arsh and beyond) and nothing in the entire World remains a secret to him.
- Man has also such power that he can gaze into the future and it only awakens when the 5 other senses are asleep and the mind is free from observations.
- Changing perceptions in this World. Somewhere clouds are forming or pearls. At others tears are changing the rays into darkness while still darkness is changing into light.
- A man has freedom of deeds and actions but these are also restricted because according to his comprehension he may be suspicious or doubtful of its might or force.
- Too much credence and ecliance is destructful and excessive criticisms unfortunate.
- Holding the power of revenge yet drinking up ones anger is an excellent form of Jihad.
- Strokes of misfortune or temptation are a rank, therefore the specific of truth are involved with it.
- Nafs (desires) are in direct conflict with Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala therefore the best opposition to you nafs is becoming friends with Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.
- The reality of Taqwa is this, that if you have expose what’s in your heart, place it on a tray and take it to the market then you should not be ashamed of a single item you have displayed.
- Jihad with ones wealth is better than Jihad with a sword.
- Food is the sustenance of the body while contentment comforts the soul.
- Fortunate is he whose heart becomes knowledgeable, whose body becomes patient and he is content with what he has present.
- Respect the young for they have lesser sins to their name because of their age in comparison to you. Revelation is not made for destruction but as an examination.
- Kindness or favors is incomplete without these 3 things – If you regard it as minor it becomes great – or you keep it hidden or concealed this it becomes whole and sufficient or by doing it quickly one finds pleasure in it.
- Sin is a sore; if it is not stopped it spreads.
- To complain is to stop being patient.
- The person who keeps the company of all types of people is not safe.
- The person who traverses upon the wrong path is accused and suspicion descends upon him.
- The person who cannot control his tongue becomes disgraced.
- A criminal and a remorseful sinner become submissive.
- Flatterers are the origin of pride and arrogance.
- Someone once asked who is better, a patient dervish or a grateful wealthy person? He said: The patient dervish because the heart of the rich is stuck in his pocket while the heart of the dervish is stuck on Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala.
- Prayers without repentance are not appropriate for Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala has made repentance the preamble upon prayers.
- Besides the fervor of Sufism there is no other road to follow the Qur’an and Sunnah.
- The poverty of the ‘Ulema is by choice while that of the ignorant is forced or uncontrolled.
- A mans fortunes are also in his enemy being clever.
- A boastful worshipper is a sinner and a sinner is he who finds every possible excuse not to worship.
- It is happiness for him who, though he sees a pleasurable thing yet he does not desire it with his heart.
- Our religion is completely respected. That person who does not consider this will be very disappointed.
- A very great Zahid (One who remembers Allah SubHanuhu wa Ta’ala excessively) is he who withdraws from the people.
- Although there is excellence in congregation there is safety in seclusion.
- Complete satisfaction of the stomach and starving are both hindrances of worship.
- To openly display your animosity is better than to hypocritically agree.
- In difficult times the search for rest and peace enhances that difficulty.